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tt! va* > Tanpura , Sitar,  Sarod, Rudra-Veena, Guitar,  surbhar, rbab
t<tu va* > sar<gI, idléba, bela (violin), tar zhna$
sui;r va* > ba<surI, Algaeja, zhna$, spere kI p<ugI, Kleiryaeneq, ipklae, hamaeRinym
Avn va* > poavj, tbla, Faelk
"n va* > jltr<g, Ha<H, tasa, m<jIra, "u<"ê, "<qa,Santoor



There are a stunning array of bowed stringed instruments in use in India, in classical, religious, folk and popular music. One of the most widespread is the Dilruba, which is found in two forms throughout the north, central, and east regions of Subcontinent. The Dilruba is found in the north, where it is used in religious music, and light classical songs in the urban areas. The Esraj is found in the east and central areas, chiefly in Bengal, though also in modern Bangledesh. It is used in a somewhat wider variety of musical styles than the Dilruba.
                 The Esraj was a favorite instrument of the famous poet Tagore, who employed it in his songs.
                 The structure of both instruments is nearly indentical, and they both have a medium sized Sitar-like neck, with 20 heavy metal frets. This neck holds on a small long wooden rack 12-15 sympathic strings. Both also feature 4 main strings which are bowed. All the strings are metal. The soundboard is a stretched piece of goatskin similar to what is found on a sarangi.

Mridangam and Pahkawraj

The Pahkawraj

                    The Mridangam is the most commonly occurring drum in the Southern classical style. It is barrel shaped with drum heads at both of its open ends. The body is made of very heavy wood and has multi-layered heads which give it a very bright sound. The heads are attached to the body by leather cord to maintain its tension and to tune it to various pitches. The Mridangam is used to accompany mainly vocal and instrumental performances, and often temple music.

                    The Pahkawraj of the North is similar in shape to its cousin in the South. It two has heads on both its ends. However the Pahkawraj is made of lighter wood and has single skin heads. The result is a drum with a
                    much lower tone than its kin in the south, and is somewhat less flexible in pitch as well. The Pahkawraj is
                    used in the performance of older music styles, usually to acommpany Bin, Rabab, Surbahar as well as Sitar
                    played in the old style of Dhrupad.

Bin (Rudra Vina)

The Bin, which is the Vina of the North Indian music is the oldest of indigenious instruments, is still used in classical music. The
instrument is first depicted in the 6th Century A.D., however there are references in texts to a bottle-gourd Vina, back as far as 500 B.C.. This instrument has dominated Indian music nearly 2000 years.

The present day Bin, which crystallized in the 16th-18th centuries, features a hollow wooden tube to which are attached 24 high frets. There are two large gourd screwed into the back of the tube, which act as resonators. Most Bin have 7 or 8 strings 4 which are fretted and 3 or 4 strings which are used as open drones. Typically the Bin is 5 to 8 tones lower than its younger sister the Sitar.

The Bin was extremely important in Indian musical society in the past. Despite its significance, the Bin is played by few in India today, due its rather quiet tone, and difficult technique.


                    The Sarangi is the premier bowed instrument of North Indian music, it began to become popluar in the
                    mid-17th century to accompany vocal music. It still retains this vital role today but is largely surplanted by
                    the harmonium.

                    The Sarangi consists of squat, truncated body. Like the Sarode it has a sound board of goat skin. It has
                    three main playing strings of heavy gut. These are the ones which are bowed. It also has an addition 30-40
                    metal smypathic strings, which give the instrument it characteristic sound.

                    Unlike the violin, in which the strings are pressed down on a fingerboard,the playing strings of the sarangi
                    are stopped with fingernails of the left hand.


The Santur is the eastern relative of the hammered dulcimer of Europe. In fact it is likely that the dulcimer originated in Central or South Asia. Stories of a shatatantri vina or one hundred string Vina, of the ancient past are widely recorded. However the origins of the instrument in Kashmir are still shroud in mystery.

The Santur consists of a finely finished trapezium shaped box, with metal strings run across the top. The strings are usually grouped in three strings per note, called courses. Each of the courses is surported by a small wooden bridge, which alternate on either side of the top. Each course is sounded by striking it with a pair of light wooden mallets. Used for over a 1000 years in the Kashmir valley, it was introduced into North indian Classical music by efforts of Pt.Shiv Kumar Sharma.


                 The Sarode is a fretless lute, with a fingerboard faced with metal. It has a soundtable of goat skin. The Sarode
                 has generally 8 to 10 main playing strings and 11 to 16 sympathic strings. It is plucked with a pick made
                 coconut shell. It evolved from the ancient Rabab, sometime it the 19th cent ury. The Sarode is shorter than the
                 Sitar in length and has a clearer, rounder tone. The sarode is capable of both long slides and fast percussive

               Probably the best-known North Indian instrument,the Sitar is a long necked lute with 20 curved metal frets.It is
               plucked by the index finger of the left hand fitted with a plectrum made of wire. Sitars generally have 6 or 7 main
               playing strings which run above the frets,and an additional 12 or more sympathic strings,which give the
               instrument an shimmering echo when played. The bridge of the Sitar which is retangular gives the instrument its
               characteristic sound.

               The Sitar evolved from the Vina of the north probably sometim e in the 13th Century. Changes in the instrument
               are attributed to the famed Sufi poet Amir Khusrau.

               For those wishing to learn about playing the instrument, we recommend "Techniques of the Sitar" by S. Bandyo
               Padhyaya. Hardbound, B.R. Publishing, 418 pages. $36.
Source :


  tanpUra @k va* hE, jae ik s<gIt kI jan hE, àTyek gayn vadn ke saw #ska àyaeg
 AinvayR êp se haeta hE,

    #s va* me< 4 ya 5 tar  haete hE<, pihla Svr p<cm ya  mXym ya zu g<xar ya zu
  in;ad haeta hE, ijse rag gayn vadn me< %pyuKtta ke Aaxar pr imlaya jata hE, bIc
  ke 2 tar mXy sPtk se sa (;fj) me< imlaye jate hE<, twa A<itm 4wa tar ojR sa me<
   imlaya jata hE, jb tanpUre ke tarae< kae @k ke bad xIre xIre bjaya jata hE tb #nse
  jint Anek Svr inklte hE< ijnme< §;- (re) twa g<xar (g) àmuo hE<, yh ;fj-mXym
                    ya ;fj-p<cm -av kI vjh se Svt> hI pEda haete hE<,


   tbla ihNduStanI gayn vadn me< AinvayR êp se àyaeg haeta hE, #ska àyaeg ivi-Nn
   talae< kae ly me< bjane me< haeta hE, #sme< 2 Alg Alg vStuAae< ijNhe< tbla v ifGga
 khte hE<, ka àyaeg ikya jata hE,