Raag - Swara
- Jati - Varjya-Swaras
- Time of Raag - Aaroh-Avroh
Sthan - Vishesh - Aalaaps
- Taans - Laya
- Murkiyan - Meend
- Gamak - Poorvang-Uttarang
Raga or Raaga: The melody with an overall mood or
environs producing a lasting impression while entertaining or recreating
the audience. A combination of different musical notes
or Swaras in a particular sequence of ascending and descending makes
Do Re Me Pha So La & Ti.
or Note(s) : Swara means a musical note including
the Drone (Swarit) or Shadaj or Sa. An Octave has basic 7 notes which are
universally known as
which may be represented equivalently in Indian Classical Music as
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni
here for Swara representation in
: It is the classification of a Raag based on
the number of notes employed in its Aaroh and Avroh
Jati is described in a pair of notes in Aaroh & Avroh of a Raag. Sampurna
is all 7 notes, Shadhav is 6 notes, Audhav is 5 notes and Surtar is 4 notes.
The different Jati combinations are given below in a table.
Obviously there are notes in cases from sr.nos. 3 onwards in
Aaroh or Avroh that are not employed in whole Raag. It is possible that
a note not emplyed in Aaroh may be used in Avroh and vice-versa. In some
cases the rendering becomes Vakra (with a turn around that note).
This is indicated in Jati. e.g. Audhav-Sampurna Vakra and so on.
or Forbidden Notes : Notes not employed in a Raag
are called Varjya Swaras or Forbidden notes. e.g. Raag
Hans-Dhwani has Madhyam & Dhaivat Varjya and its Jati
of Raag : There is a specific
time period for a Raag during which it should be rendered. The Time Cycle
employed in Raagas rendering begins at 6 AM and ends at 6 PM for the day
(12 hours) and for the night begining 6 PM and ends at 6 AM next day (12
Hours). Each cycle (day & night) are devided into time periods of 3
hours each called Prahar. So there are 4 Prahars in
the Day Time Cycle and 4 Prahars in the Night Time Cycle.Apart
from this there are many Raagas which are rendered in specific seasons
viz; Basant, Bahar
etc are the Raagas rendered in the Spring Season while
Gaud-Malhar etc are the Raagas rendered
Rainy Season. There are some Raagas which can be rendered
at any time also called Sarv-Kalik Raagas or All-Time Raagas viz;
Bhairavi, Pahadi etc.
: Aaroh of a Raag is the sequence of notes in
ascending order between Madhya Shadja (S) and Tar Shadja (S') where
Avroh of a Raag is the sequence of notes in
between Tar Shadja (S') and Madhya Shadja (S).
or Main Feature or Pakad of a Raag :
This includes very essential notations without which the Raag can not menifest
Sthan or Stoppable Notes : These
are the notes for ending Aalaps and Taans
while rendering a Raag. Shadaj or Shadja or S is obviously a note as Vishranti
Sthan. There could be other notes too as Vishranti Sthans in a Raag.
: It includes the notations
to bring out the melodic form as well as the current form information about
a Raag. The other names of Raag if any, and the need to acquire expertise
from Guru and the importance of Swara, Laya etc in
the artistics rendering.
is the combination of notes rendered in a faster speed (More than 2 swaras
in a beat or Matra) in ascending or descending order. The Taan pattern
should be made beautifully effective through Sapat Taans, Alankars, Gamak
etc. Alankars follow a particularly pattern of combination of notes like
an ornament and are very efective while rendering Taans.
: If several notes are rendered
in on stroke it's called a Khatka
: In rendering a note if we
simultaneously derive it from bothe upper and lower note as in e.g. ,NSRS
or RS,NS or DPGP giving a rounded note.
It is called a Murki. It's a kind of tonal embellishment. It is natural
to many voice types and adds beauty to renderings. Murki is used while
It's a smooth flowing passage from one note to other in ascending or descending
Poorvang is the lower half of the octave i.e. S r G M and
is the upper half of the Octave i.e. P D N S'.
: Taan Renendering
with Meend for Vakra Swaras. It can be heavy or light.
e.g mgmRS in
Raag Darbari Kanada.
: There are 9 Rasas or Bhavas are described in the Indian
Classical Dance forms viz Bhakti (Devotional), Karuna, Veer, Veebhatsa,
Vichitra, Hasya (Humour), Virah, Vairagya & Krodh (Anger).